A life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) for setting energy-efficiency standards in Brazil : The case of residential refrigerators

2 de junho de 2003

Paper titled: A life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) for setting energy-efficiency standards in Brazil: The case of residential refrigerators. Paper presented at the 2003 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry (http://aceee.org/conf/indindex.htm). Abstract: The Brazilian law 10.295/2001 set the principles for the “National Energy Conservation Policy and Rational Use of Energy”. The law requires the development of energy standards for all of energy consuming equipment commercialized in the country. This paper presents the impacts of introducing cost-effective improvements in domestic refrigerators that were determined by means of a LCCA analysis. The analytical approach and computer simulation tool used in the study are the ones employed for the US DOE as well as the European Commission. The results were used to estimate the impacts of efficiency standards on new refrigerators up to year 2020 assuming two hypothetical cases. Case A assumes that all new refrigerators sold have the efficiency innovations proposed here, Case B assumes that part of these innovations would be included in a first mandatory standard enforced in year 2005 and in 2010 a second mandatory standard would consider all the innovations analyzed. The electricity consumption per refrigerator in Case A can be reduced by 43% (in 2005) with currently known and available technologies. The payback time to the consumer (12% interest rate) is calculated to be 7 years (lower than the 16 years average life time). Over 2005-2020 period, Brazil would save around 80 TWh, Brazilian consumers would save more than 12 Billion R$ on their electricity bills and the nation would save 38,000 GgCO2 (due to avoided CO2 emissions from natural gas power plants). In Case B, we assume two mandatory standards, one enforced in year 2005 that yields a 24% reduction. A second mandatory standard set in 2010 reduces by 48% (compared to the base year 2000 refrigerator consumption). The payback time was calculated as 7 and 12 years, respectively. Over 2005-2020 period, Brazil would save 70 TWh, the consumers would save 9 billion R$ and the nation would save 34,000 GgCO2.